Like landscaping, gardening involves design, planning, and maintenance, but gardening usually involves only the plants in a space. Landscape designers and gardeners can sketch a design for a garden and determine a plant list, but only the gardeners will plant, weed, cultivate, replace and harvest the plants. Gardening is an ongoing activity because gardens require tending and specialized care throughout the year. Gardening also requires knowledge, from experience and education, of several natural processes, including soil ecology, climates, plant physiology, water drainage and pest infestations.
Dutch artists of the 16th century used the word “landscape” to describe paintings of scenery on land. The modern English word”landscape” borrows from the Dutch and refers to a visual image of outdoor spaces. Landscaping, therefore, is about visualizing a picture for space and then creating that space. Landscaping incorporates into space botanical elements, such as trees, lawns and shrubbery and other flora, along with hardscapes, such as pathways, furniture, planting beds, water features, and fences.